The Gnat Is Older than Man by Christopher D. Stone

By Christopher D. Stone

Why are globe-spanning environmental difficulties at the upward thrust and what will be performed approximately them? Christopher Stone provides a concise and balanced evaluate of the hazards, from weather switch and ozone depletion to deforestation and biodiversity loss. Exploring the institutional framework, Stone exhibits why international difficulties don't continuously reap the benefits of "global solutions," how environmental international relations has to account for the turning out to be tensions among wealthy and negative countries, and why even checking inhabitants progress wouldn't heal the planet. Stone's newest paintings, right away theoretical and practical, is an incredible contribution to our knowing of 1 of humanity's maximum demanding situations. Why are globe-spanning environmental difficulties at the upward push and what might be performed approximately them? Christopher Stone provides a concise and balanced review of the dangers, from weather swap and ozone depletion to deforestation and biodiversity loss. Exploring the institutional framework, Stone exhibits why international difficulties don't continually take advantage of "global solutions," how environmental international relations has to account for the starting to be tensions among wealthy and negative international locations, and why even checking inhabitants development wouldn't heal the planet. Stone's newest paintings, right now theoretical and practical, is an important contribution to our knowing of 1 of humanity's maximum demanding situations.

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Government Printing Office, 1992); Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Chemical Weapons: Destruction and Conversion (London: Taylor and Francis, 1980). 11 CHAPTER I The evidence is now overwhelming that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and other gaseous by-products of air conditioners, fire extinguishers, computer-chip solvents, and other modern contrivances are implicated in the chemical reactions that are depleting this protective covering. To put the peril in its bleakest light: before the “ozone shield” formed eons ago, life on earth was restricted to sea creatures that lived deep enough in the water to be defended from the mutating power of the rays.

With equal 31 CHAPTER I certainty we can say that other hazards will emerge that no one now anticipates. The aim of this book, in all events, is not to retail horror stories or to arbitrate between the doomsayers and the optimists about what is going to happen if we do nothing in the long term. For the most part we do well to assume, on the side of prudence, that there are real global-scale risks, and to prepare for them within reasonable levels of expenditure. As two of our leading atmospheric chemists have put it: What is particularly troubling is the possibility of unwelcome surprises, as human activities continue to tax an atmosphere whose innerworkings and interactions with organisms and non-living materials are incompletely understood.

23 The Ozone Shield In the stratosphere, the fragile layer of ozone that shields life below from some of the sun’s potentially lethal ultraviolet radiation is under assault. When the thinning was originally discerned, it appeared to be localized above the Antarctic and to be essentially a winter phenomenon. 24 * This figure does not include the tons of chemical weapons stockpiled around the world which now have to be disposed of safely before they simply leak—a problem that continues to stymie everyone even after enormous investments in studies and in alternative technologies.

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