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Policy-makers and the general public, it has famously been acknowledged, are extra drawn to the potential of non-linear dislocations and surprises within the behaviour of our surroundings than in soft extrapolations of present developments. The foreign job strength in Forecasting Environmental swap (1993-1998) devoted its paintings to constructing techniques of version construction able to addressing our palpable matters for sizeable swap sooner or later.
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Damage to the surface membrane, the epithelial cells or more strikingly the endothelium, by oxidant gases such as nitrogen dioxide or ozone, causes swelling of the cells and leakage of plasma into alveoli (Figure 2 ) . This plasma, containing protein and lipids from plasma and damaged cells, replaces surfactant at the air-liquid interface and disturbs the balance between curvature and surface tension maintained by DPL ( 3 ) . The sensitivity of the alveolar membranes and cells has not been determined with precision.
30 (1967). Invest. Interstitial 16: 9 1 2 . C. J. of (1962). of Appi. dust lymph CHAPTER 3. TRACHEOBRONCHIAL RESPONSE TO INSULT P. MACKLEM, Respiratory Division, Royal Victoria Hospital/ McGIll University, Montreal, Canada KAYE H. ) Mucus RESPONSES The cough reflex Is produced by stimulating cough receptors which are situated principally In large airways (1). Exogenous (inhalation of irritants) and endogenous (failure of mucus clearance due either to excessive production or deficient ciliary activity) stimuli Initiate cough.
1968). The effect of hydrocarbon enriched fraction from cigarette smoke on mouse tracheas grown in vitro. Brit. J. Cancer 22: 105. 22. Lasnitzki, I. (1956). The effect of 3-4 benz-a-pyrene on human fetal lung grown in vitro. Brit. J. Cancer 10: 510. 23. , Kuschner, M. and Drew, R. T. (1969). Studies tn pulmonary carcinogenesis. In: M. G. Hanna, P. Netteshelm and J. R. ). Inhalation Carcinogenesis. Proc. of Conf. Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Conf. 69001. Nati. Tech. Info. , Springfield, Virginia, 321.