By Wim J. van der Linden
Item reaction conception has turn into an integral part within the toolkit of each researcher within the behavioral sciences. It presents a robust ability to check person responses to a number of stimuli, and the technique has been prolonged and built to hide many various types of interplay. This quantity offers a wide-ranging instruction manual to merchandise reaction idea - and its purposes to academic and mental checking out. it's going to function either an advent to the topic and in addition as a entire reference quantity for practitioners and researchers. it really is equipped into six significant sections: the nominal different types version, versions for reaction time or a number of makes an attempt on goods, types for a number of talents or cognitive elements, nonparametric types, versions for nonmonotone goods, and versions with certain assumptions. each one bankruptcy within the ebook has been written through a professional of that exact subject, and the chapters were conscientiously edited to make sure that a uniform form of notation and presentation is used all through. consequently, all researchers whose paintings makes use of merchandise reaction concept will locate this an necessary spouse to their paintings and it'll be the subject's reference quantity for a few years to come.
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Extra info for Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory
The unit of measurements in educational scales. Journal of Educational Psychology 18, 505-524. L. (1927b). A law of comparative judgement. Psychological Review 34, 273-286. K. (1984). Estimation of two-parameter logistic item response curves. Journal of Educational Statistics 9, 263-276. K. Y. (1986). Bayesian estimation of item response curves. Psychometrika 51, 251-267. R. (1946). Maximum validity of a test with equivalent items. Psychometrika 11, 1-13. W. (1974). Approximations to item parameters of mental test models.
The same notion of underlying dichotomies was present in a review by van Engelenburg (1995), who considered these dichotomous as representations of the cognitive step an examinee needs to take to solve a test item. The models in this volume are grouped into six different sections. The first section contains eight chapters on models for responses to items with a polytomous format or to open-ended items scored for the degree of comleteness of the response. If the distractors of the item play a role in the solution process or the item formulates a problem consisting of different sequential components, the properties of these distractors or components must be parametrized in the model.
Lord (1952) introduced the two-parameter normal-ogive model for analyzing multiple-choice test data. Applications of his model were hampered by the complexities of model parameter estimation and Lord's concern about the failure to handle the problem of guessing in his two-parameter model. A few years later (1957 and 1958), Birnbaum in a series of reports described the more tractable two- and three-parameter logistic models. This important work is most accessible today in Birnbaum (1968). Although neither Lord nor Birnbaum showed any interest in a one-parameter normal-ogive or logistic parameter model because of their belief that test items needed at least two parameters to be accounted adequately for in an IRT model, one to describe difficulty and the other to describe discriminating power, the one-parameter logistic model is a special case of the models they developed.