By Robert D. Whittemore, L. L. Langness, Paul Koegel (auth.), L. L. Langness, Harold G. Levine (eds.)
Mental retardation within the usa is presently outlined as " ... signif icantly subaverage basic highbrow functioning present simultaneously with deficits in adaptive habit, and manifested in the course of the improvement interval" (Grossman, 1977). Of the envisioned six million plus mentally retarded participants during this kingdom totally seventy five to eighty five% are thought of to be "func tionally" retarded (Edgerton, 1984). that's, they're mildly retarded folks without glaring natural etiology or demonstrable mind pathology. regardless of the quite fresh addition of adaptive habit as an element within the definition of retardation, 1.0. nonetheless is still because the crucial diagnostic criterion (Edgerton, 1984: 26). An 1.0. lower than 70 shows subaverage functioning. even if, even such an "objective" degree as 1.0. is prob lematic due to the fact that numerous info point out fairly essentially that cultural and social components are at play in judgements approximately who's to be thought of "retarded" (Edgerton, 1968; Kamin, 1974; Langness, 1982). hence, it's been identified for rather a while that there's a shut courting among socio-economic prestige and the superiority of gentle psychological retardation: greater socio-economic teams have fewer mildly retarded people than decrease teams (Hurley, 1969). equally, it really is transparent that ethnic minorities within the usa - Blacks, Mexican-Americans, American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and others - are disproportionately represented within the retarded inhabitants (Mercer, 1968; Ramey et ai., 1978).
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Extra info for Culture and Retardation: Life Histories of Mildly Mentally Retarded Persons in American Society
She would also recite lists of all the individuals living in her house, including the pets. At school, children were grouped according to their abilities and Sarah was in all of the highest groups; in language, math, physical education, and visual perception. Mrs. J. reported that Sarah had always been "independent", wanting "to do things for herself'. Mrs. J. and Sarah, for example, read together at bedtime. Sarah often insisted on reading aloud to her mother, turning the pages, pointing out pictures and words, and talking in her "garbled way" (according to Mrs.
On the few occasions that Sarah was not home by dark, Mrs. J. reported being worried and frantic. Each time Sarah was located, she was walking her dog and seemingly unconcerned about the darkness. Mrs. J. reported that these incidents made it hard for her to let Sarah go for walks alone but she felt it was important to allow her to function as independently as possible. Sarah's behavior on walks was not free from problems. Mrs. J. reported that Sarah ambled along slowly, looking at everything, such that strangers often assumed she was lost.
McCune,B. 1973 The autobiography of Billy McCune. San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books. R. 1973 Labelling the mentally retarded. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Meyers,R. 1978 Like normal people. New York: McGraw Hill. Morrow, Barry 1981 Bill. CBS Television Network: Alan Landsburg Productions. Peabody Collection, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. Murray, D. C. 1956 This is Stevie's story. Elgin, Illinois: Brethren Publishing House. Nash, A. M. 1949 Mentally deficient; pseudo-socially successful: The boy who never grew up.