A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science by P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

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Glassware like conical flasks, measuring cylinder and pipette. Reagents 1. Special reagent 2. Ammonium persulphate 3. Standard manganese solution 4. Hydrogen peroxide 30%. Procedure 1. Take 50 mL of the sample in a conical flask. Add 50 mL distilled water to it. 2. Pipette 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 mL of standard manganese solution to different flasks, and dilute each to 100 mL using distilled water. 3. Add 5 mL special reagent to all the flasks. 4. Concentrate the solutions in all the flasks to about 90 mL boiling.

After 30 minutes settling, supernatant will be taken carefully from all the jars to measure turbidity. The dose, which gives the least turbidity, is taken as the optimum coagulant dose. Apparatus 1. Jar test apparatus 3. Pipette 5. pH meter 2. Glass beakers 4. Nephelometer 56 A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering Reagents 1. Alum solution (1mL containing 10 mg of alum) 2. Lime 3. Acid/alkali Procedure 1. Take 1-litre beakers and fill them with sample up to the mark.

Again titrate against acid, until the colour turns to orange yellow. Note down the total volume (V2). 02 N H2SO4 × sample (Methyl orange/phenolphthalein indicator) Description of sample Trial no. Burette reading (phenolphthalein indicator) Initial Volume of acid used V1 Burette reading (methyl orange indicator) Final Initial Volume of acid used V2 Final Calculation 1. Phenolphthalein alkalinity (P) as mg/L CaCO3 = 2. Total alkalinity (T) as mg/L CaCO3 = V1 × 1000 mL of sample V2 × 1000 mL of sample The types of alkalinities present in the samples are calculated using the equations given in the following table and the results are tabulated.

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