Australia's Biodiversity and Climate Change by Will Steffen, A.A. Burbidge, L. Hughes, R. Kitching, D.

By Will Steffen, A.A. Burbidge, L. Hughes, R. Kitching, D. Lindenmayer, W. Musgrave, M. Stafford-Smith, P. A. Werner

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Otherwise, as for many ecosystem services associated with biodiversity, collective institutional arrangements will be required. Even where market institutions are appropriate, they need to be established, administered and adapted via collective arrangements. The design and choice of collective institutional arrangements for sustaining ecosystem services associated with biodiversity are critical for strengthening our capacities to adapt under the pervasive complexity and uncertainty of climate change.

These occur in repeated sets organising species into a manageable number of functional groups. • Species that adapt well to change have high reproductive rates, short longevities and high mobilities. • Species respond differentially to drivers at different scales. • Key scales are both spatial and temporal, including local to continental, and immediate to geological. • Environmental determinants include the physico-chemical environment and the biological environment. • These define their fundamental and realised niches.

2005) and those overseas (Homan et al. 2004). For example, thresholds may exist for the amounts of particular kinds of habitat or land cover types in a landscape. When these thresholds are transgressed, sudden changes in species abundance or ecosystem processes may occur, leading to changes in system state or ‘regime shifts’ (Folke et al. 2004). Hypothetically, thresholds are more likely to be crossed and regime shifts more likely to occur when levels of particular kinds of habitat or types of to adapt genetically.

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