Apocrifi dell'Antico Testamento

Secondo una tradizione antichissima, il male ebbe origine quando tra gli uomini nacquero "ragazze belle di aspetto", e "gli angeli, figli del cielo, le videro e se ne innamorarono". Da quel momento, con los angeles discesa degli angeli e l. a. loro unione con gli esseri umani, il peccato si diffuse su tutta l. a. Terra. Questo mito delle origini, non incluso nel canone della Bibbia, è raccontato in uno dei testi attribuiti al patriarca Enoc in cui si intrecciano profonde riflessioni sul male e sul rapporto dell'uomo con Dio, scandagliate dagli ebrei fin dal pace del travagliato esilio babilonese. Non è un caso isolato. È da versioni parallele di tal fatta che fiorirono rami secondari e dimenticati della tradizione biblica, specchio della varietà d'idee che serpeggiava nella Palestina del giudaismo precristiano: visioni teologiche replacement, spesso apertamente confliggenti con le posizioni ufficiali, che approdano fino al II secolo d.C, ponendo le basi delle comunità protocristiane. Composizioni come le "apocalissi", i testamenti di patriarchi e le raccolte di proverbi e salmi si mescolano, sotto strati di secoli, a immaginifici miti e compilazioni cosmogoniche, fino a perdersi nel pace e scomparire sotto i colpi dell'ortodossia. Fu così che gli Apocrifi dell'Antico Testamento - qui raccolti in un nucleo di testi significativi, mai tradotti prima in italiano - furono trascurati according to millenni e rivalutati nella loro importanza cruciale solo dopo i rinvenimenti di Qumran.

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In Jer 16:15; 23:8 and 27:19 it is again God who will restore Israel. In the first passage, “I shall restore [ἀποκαταστήσω] them to their land, which I gave to their forefathers,” in the Hebrew Vorlage the verb is again yšb. In the second passage, “The Lord is alive, who gathered the whole offspring of Israel […] and restored [ἀποκατέστησε] them into their land,” in Hebrew the verb is once more yšb. ” All three occurrences of the verb ἀποκαθίστημι in these two verses reflect the Hebrew verb yšb.

This is an exception in the Bible. Αἰώνιος in reference to the world to come is also found in 4 Macc 12:12, where an impious tyrant is threatened with fire in the next world (αἰωνίῳ πυρί) for the whole aeon to come, εἰς ὅλον τὸν αἰῶνα. In the same book, very interestingly, in 4Macc 10:15, the life of the pious martyrs is described as ἀΐδιος, that is, eternal in the absolute sense. ). These parallel but antithetical expressions, βίος ἀΐδιος and ὄλεθρος αἰώνιος, are particularly notable and inaugurate a distinction that will return again and again, not only in the NT, but also in many Fathers.

G. g. ” It can also mean “to restore” in reference to a philological emendation of a text; Origen, who was a Biblical philologist no less than a theologian–philosopher, uses ἀποκαθίστημι in this sense in Comm. in Eph. 3:17–19 and Sel. in Ps. 50 PG 12,1453B. But the most specific and technical meaning of the verb is that concerning apokatastasis or eventual universal restoration, for instance again in Origen: “the impious and the demons will be restored [ἀποκατασταθήσονται] to their original order,” evidently by God (Princ.

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