By Susan Welch
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Extra resources for Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments in Medical and Law Schools
S. 561 ). When layoffs were necessary in the past, the city had done so according to seniority"last hired, first fired" -as is customary for employers who have collective bargaining agreements with unions. But the city had a relatively recent affirmative action plan to increase the number of minorities in the fire department, so layoffs according to seniority would have dispropor- 34 Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments tionately hurt minority workers, who were hired later, and hindered the city's goals.
He approvingly cited the Harvard and Princeton programs in this context. In an appendix he added an explanation of the Harvard program, from an amicus curiae brief by the universities of Harvard, Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Stanford, and in his opinion he quoted extensively from it: In recent years Harvard College has expanded the concept of diversity to include students from disadvantaged economic, racial, and ethnic groups. Harvard College now recruits not only Californians or Louisianans but also blacks and Chicanos and other minority students.
Further, the craft training program apparently had operated in such a way that craft workers could indicate a preference for particular other employees to receive the craft training. Thus, white craft workers essentially established a pipeline of white employees to join them in these more desirable jobs (Ezorsky 1991, 35). Consequently, Kaiser's agreement undoubtedly was not as voluntary as it appeared. In this way the case differed from Bakke, because there was no record that the Davis medical school or even the Davis campus of the University of California had discriminated.