By Kenneth E. Wilkening
Acid Rain technological know-how and Politics in Japan is a pioneering paintings in environmental and Asian heritage in addition to an in-depth research of the impression of technological know-how on family and foreign environmental politics. Kenneth Wilkening's examine additionally illuminates the worldwide fight to create sustainable societies.The Meiji recovery of 1868 ended Japan's period of isolation- created self-sufficiency and sustainability. the hole of the rustic to Western principles and know-how not just introduced toxins difficulties linked to industrialization (including acid rain) but additionally medical thoughts for figuring out and struggling with them. Wilkening identifies 3 pollution-related "sustainability crises" in glossy jap background: copper mining within the overdue 19th and early 20th centuries, which spurred Japan's first acid rain examine and coverage tasks; horrendous post-World struggle II household business pollutants, which led to a "hidden" acid rain challenge; and the present-day worldwide challenge of transboundary pollutants, in which Japan is a sufferer of imported acid rain. He lines the country's medical and coverage responses to those crises via six specific sessions on the topic of acid rain difficulties and argues that Japan's management function in East Asian acid rain technological know-how and coverage at the present time will be defined largely via the "historical medical momentum" generated through efforts to confront the problem when you consider that 1868, strengthened through Japan's cultural affinity with rain (its "culture of rain"). Wilkening presents an outline of nature, tradition, and the acid rain challenge in Japan to supplement the overall set of suggestions he develops to investigate the interface of technology and politics in environmental policymaking. He concludes with a dialogue of classes from Japan's event that may be utilized to the production of sustainable societies around the globe.
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Extra info for Acid Rain Science and Politics in Japan: A History of Knowledge and Action toward Sustainability (Politics, Science, and the Environment)
In turn, the constraints implied by these natural laws are fed into the political process so that value judgments can be made on what is to be sustained, for whom, and for how long. Historically, how have environmental science and politics interacted relative to the goal of sustainability? Can we glean from their historical relationship “sustainability lessons” for the future? In this book, I use Japan’s acid deposition history as a database for investigating the sciencepolitics interface in relation to sustainability.
They provide non-expert audiences with a cognitive structure for comprehending technically complex environmental problems. These bridging objects can be broad or speciﬁc, and once invented, can be used by expert community members themselves, or other actors, to communicate between the social worlds engaged in the policy process. Science-to-science bridging objects are the shared language of scientists, and are used, for instance, to locally adapt scientiﬁc knowledge imported from outside locations and to produce comparable and compatible data.
This is sometimes tricky for science-topolicy bridging objects because different people express the same concept in different words. The existence of science-to-policy bridging objects in and of themselves tells us little about political inﬂuence. Central to understanding political inﬂuence is classifying different types of bridging objects because different objects (representing different types and degrees of scientiﬁc knowledge) carry different political weight. Based on Japan’s acid deposition history, I distinguished the following classes of environmentally related, policy-inﬂuencing science-to-policy bridging objects: existence bridging objects—concepts expressing the existence of a problem or some aspect of it without necessarily conﬁrming its extent, intensity, cause, or impacts; • character bridging objects—concepts expressing the character of some aspect of a problem; • extent-intensity, trend, or distribution bridging objects—concepts describing the extent and/or intensity of the problem or an aspect of it, including trends and distributions; • cause-and-effect bridging objects—concepts codifying chains of cause and effect; • impact bridging objects—concepts delineating impacts of the problem on society and/or ecosystems (one type of impact bridging object is closely tied to risk assessment, called risk assessment bridging objects); • Sustainable Science, Politics, and Environment 29 solution bridging objects—concepts expressing all or part of the solution path (to be explained further later).